SabaLAB


Recent Work I

VISUALISATION OF ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASURES OF
WORKERS IN COMPUTER 3D MODELING OF WORK PLACE

Budimir MIJOVIĆ, Darko UJEVIĆ & Sarajko BAKSA


Scientific 3D visualization of work place by computer made 3D-machine model and computer ckarateristics of animation of a worker have been done in this
work. By visualization of 3D characters in inverse kinematic and dynamic relation with operating part of a machine, biomechanic characteristics of worker's
body have been determined. For determination of dimensions of a machine inspection of technical documentation of machine has been done, measurement
of machine and recording by camera was done, while anthropometric measures of body height of a worker were determined by measurement. On the basis
of measured body heights, by computer program developed by an author all relevant anthropometric heights of a worker were determined. By knowing
anthropometric measures, vision fields and scope zones while forming work places exact postures of workers while performing technological procedures
were determined. Minimal and maximal rotation angles and translation of upper and lower arm which are basis for the analysis of worker burdening were
analyzed. By computer anthropometric analysis of movement, dimension of seized space of a body are obtained, as for example range of arms, position of
legs, head, back etc. Influence of forming of work place on correct postures of workers during work have been reconsidered and thus its consumption of
energy and fatigue are reduced to minimal amount.

B. Mijović, D. Ujević & S. Baksa: VISUALIZATION OF ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASURES OF WORKERS IN COMPUTER 3D MODELING OF WORK PLACE;
Collegium Antropologicum, 25 (2001), 56; 639-650.



Recent Work II

Virtual People in a Computer World

Sarajko BAKSA, Miroslav SKOKO & Ines BAKSA


Computer space modeling and 3D animation simulation of human body models is an important segment of scientific visualizations and economic
Internet presentations of 3D characters and their virtual environment. The usage of 3D scanners offers reliable and precise computer storage of actual
shapes and dimensions of various bodies. Employing computer modeling of thus obtained 3D objects, and, for instance, animating characters by key
framing or using captured motions for 3D models of human body, it is possible to produce a reliable simulation of virtual human biomechanical models.
Construction of computer generated environments and their integration with virtual humans are well developed methods and procedures of applying highly
sophisticated information technologies in designing and construction of various working or free-time environments. Real-time virtual humans in virtual
world enable electronic media to experiment with virtual TV announcers and actors within computer-generated TV or movie studios, while Internet
companies get a valuable tool for developing new methods of utilizing their sites. Financial and manufacturing companies are offered an innovative method
of doing global business, promotion and trade via increasingly popular Internet banking.

S. Baksa, M. Skoko & I. Baksa: VIRTUAL PEOPLE IN A COMPUTER WORLD;
The 3rd CARNet Users Conference, CUC 2001. „From Communication to Collaboration over the Internet“, M. Milinović (ur.).,
ISBN 953-6802-03-1, September 24 – 26 2001., 1 – 10, Zagreb: CARNET Croatian Academic and Research Network, 2001.

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Recent Work III

SCIENTIFIC 3D VISUALISATION OF BODY DURING HURDLE RACING

Osman MUFTIĆ, Sarajko BAKSA & Ines BAKSA

S. Baksa, M. Skoko & I. Baksa: SCIENTIFIC 3D VISUALISATION OF BODY DURING HURDLE RACING,
The 1st Meeting of Complex Systems and Sport and the 4th International Conference of Computer Science in Sport,
COM & COM, Barcelona, May 14 – 17, 2003.

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Recent Work IV

DIGITAL 3D ERGONOMIC ANTHROPOMETRY OF VIRTUAL WORKER’S MODEL

Budimir MIJOVIĆ, Sarajko BAKSA


Anthropometric contribution to ergonomic planning and virtual forming of a working place was presented in a work, by use of a computer and computer
program. Further to this a whole row of computer programs; "ErSABA", "VatoSABA", "BodySABA" have been developed which together with incoming data
of gender, body heights or statically and dynamically digitalized anthropomeasures, detertmine dimensions of gripping space of a body, as e.g. reach of an
arm, leg, head and back position, etc. A large number of dimension differences of individuals appear in dependence on distribution by gender, furthermore
by stature and growth, and then in accordance with race, so it is not sufficient to construct working place or form products according to so called an
average person.

B. Mijović, S. Baksa: DIGITAL 3D ERGONOMIC ANTHROPOMETRY OF VIRTUAL WORKER’S MODEL;
IEA 2003, International Ergonomics Association, XVth Triennial Congress, August 24-29, 2003, Seoul, Korea.

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SabaLAB


Recent Work V

Virtual 3D forming of working place and the analysing of burdening of a worker during work with computer

Budimir MIJOVIĆ, Sarajko BAKSA


Biomechanical burdening of the workers during scientific-research work with a larger number of computer working stations was investigated in
the work. Minimum and maximum angles of bending during sitting positions of the worker were investigated. The biomechanical analysis of movements
based on real correlation in the space of interactions, a worker and a work place was effected on made virtual 3D models of a worker and a work place.
Using parameters of biomechanics analysis, dynamic anthrop measures, used for simulation character animation, were calculated. For the analysis of
co-relation of worker’s body and dimension and forms of elements of work place within this work, 3D virtual characters of feminine gender of various body
heights and weights were taken and 3D model of working chair and work place. By computer scientific visualisation, values of angles of spine curving, angle
curving of hands and upper part of the body for three digitally generated workers of various anatomic features were calculated. By knowing
anthropometrics measures and by applying computer graphics an ideal work place for each person was digitally modelled and ergonomically formed.

B. Mijović, S. Baksa: VIRTUAL 3D FORMING OF WORKING PLACE AND THE ANALYSING OF BURDENING OF A WORKER DURING WORK WITH COMPUTER;
Annual Spring Conference of the GfA and the XVII Annual Conference of the International Society for Occupational Ergonomics & Safety (ISOES),
Ergonomics Quality of Work and Products in Enterprises of the Future, Munich, Germany, May 07 – 09, 2003., 371 -374.



Recent Work VI

3D Vizualization and Simulation of the Individual Human Jaw

O. Muftić, J. Keros, S. Baksa, V. Carek & I. Matković


A new biomechanical thre-dimensional (3D) model for the human mandible based on computer-generated virtual model is proposed. Using maps
obtained from the special kinds of photos of the face of the real subject, it is possible to attribute personality to the virtual character, while computer
animation offers movements and characteristics within the confines of space and time of the virtual world. A simple twodimensional model of the jaw
cannot explain the biomechanics, where the muscular forces through occlusion and condylar surfaces are in the state of 3D equilibrium. In the model all
forces are resolved into components according to a selected coordinate system. The muscular forces act on the jaw, along with the necessary force level
for chewing as some kind of mandible balance, preventing dislocation and loading of nonarticular tissues. In the work is used S. Baksa new approach to
computer-generated animation of virtual 3D characters (called BodySABA), using in one object package of minimal costs and easy for operation.

O. Muftić, J. Keros, S. Baksa, V. Carek & I. Matković: A 3D VIZUALIZATION AND SIMULATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL HUMAN JAW;
Collegium Antropologicum, 27 (2003), 63; 1-8.



Recent Work VII

Ergonomic Analysis of Virtual Passenger in Airplane Environments

Osman MUFTIĆ, Tanja JURČEVIĆ-LULIĆ & Sarajko BAKSA


In the paper are shown the statistical anthropometric analysis of the supposed Croatian population, furthermore it is shown a harmonic circle
for so-called synthetic formation of the individual anthropomeasurements of the free chosen subjects of both genders. Also, were defined computer
modeled, exact and reliable (CAEA) virtual human models that can be applied in the scientific visual methods of the ergonomic research. Concerning the
human three dimensional body activity, the neutral spatial positions of the human body that are possible to acquire during the length of the plane flight,
and as well as the reference deviation from the neutral positions, were determined. In the paper are also shown the spatial positioning of the virtual human
models, as well as their belonging computer generated 3D visualizations inside the airplane. Computer supported three dimensional ergonomic analysis of
modeling of the passenger seats and tuck space, the space that is occupied by the human body which is in the state of moving, static position or in the
state of the inconsiderable movement is analyzed as well.

O. Muftić, T. Jurčević-Lulić & S. Baksa: ERGONOMIC ANALYSIS OF VIRTUAL PASSENGER IN AIRPLANE ENVIRONMENTS,
The 2nd International Ergonomics Conference, ERGONOMICS 2004., October 21st – 22th, 2004, Stubičke Toplice, Zagreb, Croatia, 29 – 36.



Recent Work VIII

VIRTUAL 3D HUMAN MODELLING AND DIGITAL BIOMECHANICAL ANALYSIS

Osman MUFTIĆ, Ines BAKSA & Sarajko BAKSA


The researches have been conducted of digitaly given anthropometrical measurings and threedimensional dynamical changes of biomehanical
characteristic of people from croatian population. By methods of scientific visualisation on virtualy generated statical 3D humanoid models the investigation
has been done of various characteristics of the human beings, and how different parts or organs of an organism work together to achieve a particular
function. Through computer animation of dynamical 3D virtual models, the digital biomehanical analysis of human spatial propulsion has been made, based
on distribution of mass centres during motion. The work is concluded with some modest ideas of future possibilities in the field of human digitisation,
modelling and animation, as for example is the development of different new kinds of biomechanical models on a structure and function of the locomotive
system of the human beings, involving anatomy, physiology, anthropometry and cybernetics.

O. Muftić, I. Baksa & S. Baksa: VIRTUAL 3D HUMAN MODELLING AND DIGITAL BIOMECHANICAL ANALYSIS;
3D Modelling 2004, 3D Human & Image Processing, Harbour Conferences, Paris, April 28 – 29, 2004.



Recent Work IX

DIGITAL HUMAN MODELLING AND ANIMATION FOR THE VIRTUAL FASHION SHOW

Osman MUFTIĆ, Sarajko BAKSA & Ines BAKSA


Inside this paper is presented technology of processing SABALab, a virtual humanoid models with computer 3D biomechanic and anthropometric analysis that are surveyed on the cloned models. It is done the 3D body scanning of the real models with their computer supported 3D statistic and dynamic Body shape analysis, so the necessary computer simulation and visualization of the virtually generated environments and constructed animated simulating humanoid characteristic models could be obtained. Computerized model clones are processed for the need of the Croatian fashion industry and are dressed in the virtual clothes and footwear manufactured by Croatian designers. In this way the developed animated dressed mannequins provide fast manufacturing of the virtual prototyping clothes and footwear inside the process of production. Also, it develops the share of the business subjects in the global market within of Live Catalog, Online Web applications, virtual business interactions and digital presentations.

Muftić O, Baksa S., Baksa I.: DIGITAL HUMAN MODELLING AND ANIMATION FOR THE VIRTUAL FASHION SHOW;
3D Modelling 2005, 3D Human & Image Processing, Harbour Conferences, Paris, May 18 – 19, 2005.



Recent Work X

METHODS OF DIGITAL DYNAMIC ANTHROPOMETRY OF BIOMECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF HUMAN ACTIONS

Sarajko BAKSA, Osman MUFTIĆ & Željko KNOK


One of the most important missions of the biomechanical analysis is evaluation of the workload, where load limits, necessary to preserve good human’s
health, are determined. Existing techniques for measuring human motions are allowing automatically digitalization of numerous relevant characteristics of
all human bone joints movements. This paper will present strengths and weaknesses of currently present evaluating methods and techniques, created with
the purpose of measuring human biomechanical body movements. Those digitalized and computer based researches as well as conclusions of these
researches are meeting all biomechanical, biomedical and ergonomically imposed conditions.

S. Baksa, O. Muftić & Ž. Knok: METHODS OF DIGITAL DYNAMIC ANTHROPOMETRY OF BIOMECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF HUMAN ACTIONS;
The 2nd International Professional and Scientific Conference, Occupational Safety and Health 2008.,
September 24th – 27th, 2008, Bjelolasica, Croatia, 157 – 164.



Recent Work XI

Computer Aided Ergonomy Analises in Function of Spatial 3D Modeling
Expert System for Car Forensic Analysis

Sarajko BAKSA, Ines BAKSA


The research of the analyses of traffic accidents in the available literature has shown that the calculations of the dynamic moments of vehicle
inertia are estimated rather approximately without the anthropo-dynamical values of the passengers and other cargo, which may significantly change the
results for calculating the kinetic energy of the vehicle rotation. The paper analyses the dynamic models of the drivers in the seated posture on the basis of
which the dynamic moments of inertia for male and female persons of our population have been calculated, using the method of virtual space visualisation.

The research of the analyses of traffic accidents in the available literature, has shown that the calculations of the dynamic moments of vehicle inertia are
estimated rather approximately, which may significantly change the results for calculating the kinetic energy of the vehicle rotation [1]. On the other hand,
however, the numerous data presented by the vehicle manufacturers provide the possibility of determining the dimensions, and the weight of the vehicle
either empty or occupied by the driver and the passengers. The data on the centre of gravity of the masses and the data on the dynamic moments of
inertia for all three axes are simply missing.

Sarajko Baksa, Ines Baksa: COMPUTER AIDED ERGONOMIC ANALYSIS IN THE FUNCTION OF SPATIAL 3D MODELING OF AN EXPERT SYSTEM
FOR AUTOMOTIVE FORENSIC ANALYSES
;
40 Years of Croatian Ergonomics Society Conference, May 19th, 2014., Zagreb, Croatia, 43 – 46.

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Recent Work XII

VIRTUALIZATION OF SITTING COMFORT AND RELATED BIOMECHANICAL LOAD OF THE STUDENT POPULATION

Sarajko BAKSA, Ivana VUK & Ines BAKSA


With regard to computer spatial virtualization of sitting comfort, an ergonomic analysis of active positions was conducted on a large number of
anthropometrically relevant student entities, of male and female gender. Within the paper, Computer Aided Ergonomy Analysis (CAEA) and the
performance of the associated digitally generated 3D biomechanical models, anthropometric and ergonomic adaptation of student workplaces was
investigated within the MEV's lecture rooms, within the domain of correlation of reference active seating positions. Designing the observed virtual 3D
system has enabled spatial ergonomic virtualization and detection of associated personalized biomechanical load of the body and individual body segments.

S. Baksa, I. Vuk & I. Baksa: VIRTUALIZATION OF SITTING COMFORT AND RELATED BIOMECHANICAL LOAD OF THE STUDENT POPULATION;
6th International Professional and Scientific Conference - Occupational Safety and Health,
September 12th - 15th, 2018, Zadar, Croatia, 368 – 374.



Recent Work XIII

COMPUTER 3D ANALYSIS OF DANGERS OF INCORRECT PROJECT INSTALLATION
OF A PITCHED ROOF WINDOW

Sarajko BAKSA, Ines BAKSA


By knowing the anthropometric measurements and the extent of the body's reach is possible by computer 3D scientific methods in ergonomic
and safety sense to carry out the virtual design and shaping of environmental systems with which man comes into active interaction. By introducing
computers and computer 3D software solutions, we obtain a virtual environment and associated 3D humanoid models, on which it is possible to
interactively perform all the necessary real-time shaping and modification. This can be used to establish the exact position of the user within the access
area of the increased danger regarding the incorrect project installation of a pitched roof window.

S. Baksa & I. Baksa: COMPUTER 3D ANALYSIS OF DANGERS OF INCORRECT PROJECT INSTALLATION OF A PITCHED ROOF WINDOW;
6th International Professional and Scientific Conference - Occupational Safety and Health,
September 12th - 15th, 2018, Zadar, Croatia, 361 – 367.

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